Role of Human Aldo-Keto Reductases and Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 in the Metabolic Activation of 1-Nitropyrene via Nitroreduction in Human Lung Cells by Anthony L Su

1-Nitropyrene (1-NP) is a constituent of diesel exhaust and classified as a group 2A probable human carcinogen. The metabolic activation of 1-NP by nitroreduction generates electrophiles that can covalently bind DNA to form mutations to contribute to cancer causation. NADPH-dependent P450 oxidoreductase (POR), xanthine oxidase (XO), aldehyde oxidase (AOX), and NAD(P)H/quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) may catalyze 1-NP nitroreduction. We recently found that human recombinant aldo-keto reductases…

Chem Res Toxicol. 2023 Jan 24. doi: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.2c00337. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

1-Nitropyrene (1-NP) is a constituent of diesel exhaust and classified as a group 2A probable human carcinogen. The metabolic activation of 1-NP by nitroreduction generates electrophiles that can covalently bind DNA to form mutations to contribute to cancer causation. NADPH-dependent P450 oxidoreductase (POR), xanthine oxidase (XO), aldehyde oxidase (AOX), and NAD(P)H/quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) may catalyze 1-NP nitroreduction. We recently found that human recombinant aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) 1C1-1C3 catalyze 1-NP nitroreduction. NQO1 and AKR1C1-1C3 are genes induced by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2). Despite this knowledge, the relative importance of these enzymes and NRF2 to 1-NP nitroreduction is unknown. We used a combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches to assess the relative importance of these enzymes and NRF2 in the aerobic nitroreduction of 1-NP in human bronchial epithelial cells, A549 and HBEC3-KT. 1-NP nitroreduction was assessed by the measurement of 1-aminopyrene (1-AP), the six-electron reduced metabolite of 1-NP, based on its intrinsic fluorescence properties (λex and λem). We found that co-treatment of 1-NP with salicylic acid, an AKR1C1 inhibitor, or ursodeoxycholate, an AKR1C2 inhibitor, for 48 h decreased 1-AP production relative to 1-NP treatment alone (control) in both cell lines. R-Sulforaphane or 1-(2-cyano-3,12,28-trioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-yl)-1H-imidazole (CDDO-Im), two NRF2 activators, each increased 1-AP production relative to control only in HBEC3-KT cells, which have inducible NRF2. Inhibitors of POR, NQO1, and XO failed to modify 1-AP production relative to control in both cell lines. Importantly, A549 wild-type cells with constitutively active NRF2 produced more 1-AP than A549 cells with heterozygous expression of NFE2L2/NRF2, which were able to produce more 1-AP than A549 cells with homozygous knockout of NFE2L2/NRF2. Together, these data show dependence of 1-NP metabolic activation on AKR1Cs and NRF2 in human lung cells. This is the second example whereby NFE2L2/NRF2 is implicated in the carcinogenicity of diesel exhaust constituents.

PMID:36693016 | DOI:10.1021/acs.chemrestox.2c00337

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