Prebiotic/probiotic supplementation resulted in reduced visceral fat and mRNA expression associated with adipose tissue inflammation, systemic inflammation, and chronic disease risk by Brian K McFarlin

CONCLUSION: The key findings support that 90-day prebiotic/probiotic supplementation may be associated with reduced adipose tissue inflammation, reduced systemic inflammation, and reduced chronic disease risk. Combined with the unexpected finding of reduced VAT, this intervention may have resulted in improved overall health and reduced chronic disease risk. Continue reading →

Modulation of striatal glutamatergic, dopaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission pathways concomitant with motor disturbance in rats with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus by Li-Jin Chen

CONCLUSIONS: Hydrocephalus altered striatal glutamatergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic neurotransmission pathways and tipped the balance between the direct and indirect basal ganglia circuits, which could have contributed to the motor impairments in hydrocephalus. Continue reading →

A year of experience with COVID-19 in patients with cancer: A nationwide study by Mina Khosravifar

CONCLUSION: Given the immunocompromised state of patients with malignancy and their vulnerability to Covid-19 complications, collecting data on the comorbidities and their effects on the disease outcome can build on a better clinical view and help clinicians make decisions to manage these cases better; for example, determining special clinical care, especially in the shortage of health services. Continue reading →

A COVID-19 model incorporating variants, vaccination, waning immunity, and population behavior by Zachary LaJoie

Vaccines for COVID-19 have allowed countries to combat the spread of the disease. However, new variants have resulted in significant spikes in cases and raised severe health and economic concerns. We present a COVID-19 model to predict coupled effects of vaccine multiple-dose roll-out strategies, vaccine efficacy, waning immunity, population level of caution, sense of safety, under-reporting of cases, and highly prevalent variants such as the Delta (B.1.617.2) and Omicron (B.1.1.529). The… Continue reading →

Early CD4+ T cell responses induced by the BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine predict immunological memory by Jie Bai

Longitudinal studies have revealed large interindividual differences in antibody responses induced by SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines. Thus, we performed a comprehensive analysis of adaptive immune responses induced by three doses of the BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines. The responses of spike-specific CD4^(+) T cells, CD8^(+) T cells and serum IgG, and the serum neutralization capacities induced by the two vaccines declined 6 months later. The 3^(rd) dose increased serum spike IgG and neutralizing… Continue reading →

2022 taxonomic update of phylum Negarnaviricota (Riboviria: Orthornavirae), including the large orders Bunyavirales and Mononegavirales by Jens H Kuhn

In March 2022, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. The phylum was expanded by two new families (bunyaviral Discoviridae and Tulasviridae), 41 new genera, and 98 new species. Three hundred forty-nine species were renamed and/or moved. The accidentally misspelled names of seven species were corrected. This article presents the updated taxonomy of Negarnaviricota as… Continue reading →

Molecular subgrouping of medulloblastoma in pediatric population using the NanoString assay and comparison with immunohistochemistry methods by Joo Whan Kim

CONCLUSIONS: The NanoString assay of Korean medulloblastoma patients revealed a more aggressive clinical course in the SHH subgroup which may be explained by a higher proportion of large cell/anaplastic histology being present in this subgroup. IHC did not distinguish Group 3 or 4 accurately. The NanoString assay may represent a good alternative method for practical use in the clinical field. Continue reading →

The relationships between parents’ and children’s screen times on body mass index: a cross-sectional path analysis by Kaori Ishii

CONCLUSIONS: Both fathers’ and mothers’ weekday screen times indirectly affected children’s BMI through children’s weekday screen time among Japanese elementary school children. The strongest indirect effects could be seen by examining the paths of a mother’s weekday screen time through children’s screen time to BMI. Mothers who spend much time with their children are role models, and their behavior could affect the child’s behavior. The findings imply that intervention strategies to reduce… Continue reading →

Are mothers under lunchbox pressure? An exploration of the experiences of Victorian mothers preparing lunchboxes for their children by Kimberley R Watson-Mackie

CONCLUSION: Findings of this study indicate that mothers are concerned with balancing nutrition and child preferences within the broader context of guidelines, perceived or real judgement, and income constraints. SO WHAT?: The school environment may be an ideal setting to promote healthy eating but support for parents is needed. This is the first study in Victoria exploring mothers’ perspectives on lunchbox preparation and provides initial information on which future research can build. Continue reading →