Ophthalmic characteristics and retinal vasculature changes in Williams syndrome, and its association with systemic diseases by Tsai-Chu Yeh

CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first in vivo evidence reflecting current knowledge on vessel morphology in WS patients that deficient circumferential growth is the predominant pathophysiologic changes resulting from elastin deficiency. The ophthalmic characteristics may serve as a complementary tool to diagnose and follow-up patients suffering from WS.

Eye (Lond). 2022 Nov 28. doi: 10.1038/s41433-022-02328-4. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aim to characterise the ophthalmic findings and retinal vasculature changes in patients with WS, and to analyse the correlation between ophthalmic manifestations and the associated systemic diseases.

METHODS: This retrospective case-control study included 27 WS patients and 28 age-matched healthy participants. Stellate pattern of iris, central macular thickness (CMT), foveal width, retinal vessel diameter, superficial vascular density (SVD) of macula and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) were compared between WS patients and healthy participants.

RESULTS: Twenty-five patients (93%) had the classic stellate iris presentation. Compared with healthy controls, WS patients had decreased CMT, increased foveal width and a lower SVD of macula (all P < 0.001). Significantly decreased mean retinal arterial (117.9 ± 9.9 µm vs. 133.0 ± 6.7 µm in WS and controls, respectively; p < 0.001) and venous (158.9 ± 11.2 µm vs. 174.0 ± 8.0 µm in WS and controls, respectively; p < 0.001) outer diameters, as well as mean arterial wall thickness (11.2 ± 1.3 µm vs. 12.2 ± 0.8 µm in WS and controls, respectively; p < 0.01) were found in WS. Stellate iris grading was significantly associated with CMT, foveal width, retinal vessel diameter (all p < 0.05), and a significant increase in the odds of having hypertension (Odds ratio (OR), 5.63; P < 0.05). The severity of stellate iris in WS seemed to have the trend of increasing risk of having pulmonary stenosis, tricuspid regurgitation and mitral regurgitation.

CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first in vivo evidence reflecting current knowledge on vessel morphology in WS patients that deficient circumferential growth is the predominant pathophysiologic changes resulting from elastin deficiency. The ophthalmic characteristics may serve as a complementary tool to diagnose and follow-up patients suffering from WS.

PMID:36437422 | DOI:10.1038/s41433-022-02328-4

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