Nontuberculous mycobacteria isolation from sputum specimens: A retrospective analysis of 1061 cases by Aylin Babalik

Int J Mycobacteriol. 2023 Jan-Mar;12(1):55-65. doi: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_10_23.


BACKGROUND: In recent years, with the development of laboratory methods, the frequency of nontuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) infections has increased. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) growths in respiratory samples, and the secondary aim was to evaluate the treatment regimens and treatment outcomes of treatment for TDM disease.

METHODS: This study was a retrospective cohort study. Persons with NTM growth in respiratory samples admitted to the reference hospital between 2009 and 2020 were included in this study. Samples detected as NTM by the immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic test, those requested by the clinicians, species were determined by the hsp65PCRREA method. The subjects were classified into 3 groups: patients with NTM infection who received treatment (135, 12.7%), those followed up without treatment (690, 65.1%), and a last group of patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) complex strains were isolated and received TB treatment (236, 22.2%). Initiating NTM treatment was decided in accordance with the American Thoracic Society recommendations.

RESULTS: The mean ± standard deviation age of patients was 53.8 ± 16.5 years, and 749 (70.6%) were male. In total, 278 (26.2%) out of 1061 cases had identified, and the most frequent species were MAC (81; Mycobacterium avium: 39, Mycobacterium intracellulare: 39, and MAC: 3), Mycobacterium abscessus (67), Mycobacterium kansasii (48), Mycobacterium fortuitum (23), Mycobacterium chelonae (12), Mycobacterium gordonae (11), and Mycobacterium szulgai (11). In the NTM treatment group, 116 (85.9%) of 135 patients had multiple culture positivity. Previous TB treatment history had 51 (37.8%) of 135 patients, respiratory comorbidities were evident in 37 (27.4%) of 135 patients. Thorax computed tomography imaging in 84 patients revealed nodule 38 (45.2%), consolidation 46 (54.8%), cavity 52 (61.9%), and bronchiectasis 27 (32.1%). Treatment results in the NTM treatment group were as follows: ongoing treatment 14 (10.4%), cure 64 (47.4%), default 33 (24.4%), exitus 19 (14.1%), recurrence 3 (2.2%), and refractory disease 2 (1.5%).

CONCLUSION: This is a large case series evaluating the clinical significance of NTM growths and NTM treatment in Turkey. The clinical significance of NTM growth in respiratory samples is low. Treatment success rates of NTM patients who are treated are low. Treatment defaults and mortality rates are high. New drugs and new regimens are needed.

PMID:36926764 | DOI:10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_10_23