NET formation is independent of gasdermin D and pyroptotic cell death by Darko Stojkov

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are DNA scaffolds coated with granule proteins that are released by neutrophils to ensnare and kill bacteria. NET formation occurs in response to many stimuli through independent molecular pathways. Although NET release has been equated to a form of lytic cell death, live neutrophils can rapidly release antimicrobial NETs. Gasdermin D (GSDMD), which causes pyroptotic death in macrophages, is thought to be required for NET formation by neutrophils. Through…

Sci Signal. 2023 Jan 24;16(769):eabm0517. doi: 10.1126/scisignal.abm0517. Epub 2023 Jan 24.

ABSTRACT

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are DNA scaffolds coated with granule proteins that are released by neutrophils to ensnare and kill bacteria. NET formation occurs in response to many stimuli through independent molecular pathways. Although NET release has been equated to a form of lytic cell death, live neutrophils can rapidly release antimicrobial NETs. Gasdermin D (GSDMD), which causes pyroptotic death in macrophages, is thought to be required for NET formation by neutrophils. Through experiments with known physiological activators of NET formation and ligands that activate canonical and noncanonical inflammasome signaling pathways, we demonstrated that Gsdmd-deficient mouse neutrophils were as competent as wild-type mouse neutrophils in producing NETs. Furthermore, GSDMD was not cleaved in wild-type neutrophils during NET release in response to inflammatory mediators. We found that activation of both canonical and noncanonical inflammasome signaling pathways resulted in GSDMD cleavage in wild-type neutrophils but was not associated with cell death. Moreover, NET formation as a result of either pathway of inflammasome activation did not require GSDMD. Together, these data suggest that NETs can be formed by viable neutrophils after inflammasome activation and that this function does not require GSDMD.

PMID:36693132 | DOI:10.1126/scisignal.abm0517

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