Category: Infants

Sex differences, asymmetry, and age-related white matter development in infants and 5-year-olds as assessed with tract-based spatial statistics by Venla Kumpulainen

The rapid white matter (WM) maturation of first years of life is followed by slower yet long-lasting development, accompanied by learning of more elaborate skills. By the age of 5 years, behavioural and cognitive differences between females and males, and functions associated with brain lateralization such as language skills are appearing. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)…

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Efficacy of noninvasive high-frequency oscillatory ventilation versus nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation as post-extubation respiratory support in preterm infants: a Meta analysis by Hong-Ke Shi

CONCLUSIONS: Compared with NIPPV, NHFOV can effectively remove CO(2) and reduce the risk of reintubation, without increasing the incidence of complications such as BPD, air leak, nasal damage, PVL, and IVH, and therefore, it can be used as a sequential respiratory support mode for preterm infants after extubation.

Predicting Hearing aid Benefit Using Speech-Evoked Envelope Following Responses in Children With Hearing Loss by Vijayalakshmi Easwar

Electroencephalography could serve as an objective tool to evaluate hearing aid benefit in infants who are developmentally unable to participate in hearing tests. We investigated whether speech-evoked envelope following responses (EFRs), a type of electroencephalography-based measure, could predict improved audibility with the use of a hearing aid in children with mild-to-severe permanent, mainly sensorineural, hearing…

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Health-seeking behaviour of Ethiopian caregivers when infants are unwell: a descriptive qualitative study by Girmay Kiross

CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare-seeking practice plays an important role in reducing the impact of childhood illnesses and mortality. In Ethiopia, home-based treatment practice and traditional healing methods are widely accepted. Therefore, contextual understanding of the caregivers’ health-seeking is important to design contextual healthcare interventions in the study area.

Associations between maternal and infant selenium status and child growth in a birth cohort from Dhaka, Bangladesh by Rukshan Mehta

Deficiency of essential trace element, selenium, has been implicated in adverse birth outcomes and in child linear growth because of its important role in redox biology and associated antioxidant effects. We used data from a randomized controlled trial conducted among a cohort of pregnant and lactating women in Dhaka, Bangladesh to examine associations between selenium…

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Reference centiles for infant sleep parameters from 4 to 16 weeks of age: findings from an Irish cohort by Marc Paul O Sullivan

CONCLUSIONS: Reference centiles up to 4 months of age in infants highlight the gradual decrease in daytime sleep and large increases in night-time sleep, which occur in tandem with increasing lengths of sleep episodes. These reference centiles provide useful sleep values for infant sleep trajectory occurring in early life and may be helpful for parents…

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Perioperative Management of Recurrent Hemophagocytic Syndrome in a Pregnant Woman: A Case Report by Ayako Sumii

BACKGROUND Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a rare syndrome characterized by abnormal activation of histiocytes and hemophagocytosis. We report the clinical management of recurrent HPS following 2 cesarean sections in the same patient. CASE REPORT A 33-year-old primiparous mother presented during her second trimester of pregnancy, and HPS was diagnosed based on pancytopenia, hyperferritinemia (13 170…

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Neural mechanisms of language development in infancy by Scott Huberty

Understanding the neural processes underpinning individual differences in early language development is of increasing interest, as it is known to vary in typical development and to be quite heterogeneous in neurodevelopmental conditions. However, few studies to date have tested whether early brain measures are indicative of the developmental trajectory of language, as opposed to language…

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