Acute Infarcts on Brain MRI Following Aortic Arch Repair With Circulatory Arrest: Insights From the ACE CardioLink-3 Randomized Trial by Chih-Hao Chen

CONCLUSIONS: In patients who underwent elective proximal aortic arch surgery, new ischemic brain lesions were common, and predominantly involved the middle cerebral artery territory or cerebellum. Underlying small vessel disease, lower temperature nadir during surgery, and advanced age were risk factors for perioperative ischemic lesions.

Stroke. 2022 Oct 31. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.122.041612. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: to investigate the frequency and distribution of new ischemic brain lesions detected by diffusion-weighted imaging on brain magnetic resonance imaging after aortic arch surgery.

METHODS: This preplanned secondary analysis of the randomized, controlled ACE (Aortic Surgery Cerebral Protection Evaluation) CardioLink-3 trial compared the safety and efficacy of innominate versus axillary artery cannulation during elective proximal aortic arch surgery. Participants underwent pre and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging. New ischemic lesions were defined as lesions visible on postoperative, but not preoperative diffusion weighted imaging.

RESULTS: Of the 111 trial participants, 102 had complete magnetic resonance imaging data. A total of 391 new ischemic lesions were observed on diffusion-weighted imaging in 71 (70%) patients. The average number of lesions in patients with ischemic lesion were 5.5±4.9 with comparable numbers in the right (2.9±2.0) and left (3.0±2.3) hemispheres (P=0.49). Half the new lesions were in the middle cerebral artery territory; 63% of the cohort had ischemic lesions in the anterior circulation, 49% in the posterior circulation, 42% in both, and 20% in watershed areas. A probability mask of all diffusion-weighted imaging lesions revealed that the cerebellum was commonly involved. More severe white matter hyperintensity on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (odds ratio, 1.80 [95% CI, 1.10-2.95]; P=0.02) and lower nadir nasopharyngeal temperature during surgery (odds ratio per 1°C decrease, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.00-1.32]; P=0.05) were associated with the presentation of new ischemic lesion; older age (risk ratio per 1-year increase, 1.02 [95% CI, 1.00-1.04]; P=0.03) and lower nadir temperature (risk ratio per 1°C decrease, 1.06 [95% CI, 1.00-1.14]; P=0.06) were associated with greater number of lesions.

CONCLUSIONS: In patients who underwent elective proximal aortic arch surgery, new ischemic brain lesions were common, and predominantly involved the middle cerebral artery territory or cerebellum. Underlying small vessel disease, lower temperature nadir during surgery, and advanced age were risk factors for perioperative ischemic lesions.

REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.

CLINICALTRIALS: gov; Unique identifier: NCT02554032.

PMID:36315249 | DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.122.041612

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